=head1 OVERVIEW
Two modules for PDL providing some fir filtering. These are
not yet on CPAN.
=cut
=head1 NAME
PDL::DSP::Fir - Finite impulse response filter kernels.
=head1 SYNOPSIS
use PDL;
use PDL::DSP::Fir qw( firwin );
# return a 10 sample lowpass filter kernel
# with a cutoff at 90% of the Nyquist frequency.
$kernel = firwin( N => 10, fc => 0.9 );
# Equivalent way of calling.
$kernel = firwin( { N => 10, fc => 0.9 } );
=head1 DESCRIPTION
This module provides routines to create one-dimensional finite impulse
response (FIR) filter kernels. This distribution inlcudes
a simple interface for filtering in L.
The routine L returns a filter kernel constructed
from windowed sinc functions. Available filters are lowpass,
highpass, bandpass, and bandreject. The window functions are
in the module L.
Below, the word B refers to the number of elements in the filter
kernel.
No functions are exported be default.
=head1 FUNCTIONS
=head2 firwin
=head3 Usage
=for usage
$kern = firwin({OPTIONS});
$kern = firwin(OPTIONS);
=for ref
Returns a filter kernel (a finite impulse response function)
to be convolved with data.
The kernel is built from windowed sinc functions. With the
option C 'window'> no sinc is used, rather the
kernel is just the window. The options may be passed as
a list of key-value pairs, or as an anonymous hash.
=head3 OPTIONS
=over
=item N
order of filter. This is the number of elements in
the returned kernel pdl.
=item type
Filter type. One of C, C, C,
C, C. Aliases for C are C and C.
Default is C. For C and C the number of samples
L must be odd.
If B is C, then the kernel returned is just the window function.
=item fc
Cutoff frequency for low- and highpass filters as a fraction of
the Nyquist frequency. Must be a number between
C<0> and C<1>. No default value.
=item fclo, fchi
Lower and upper cutoff frequencies for bandpass and bandstop filters.
No default values.
=back
All other options to L are passed to the function
L.
=cut
=pod
The following three functions are called by the C, but
may also be useful by themselves, for instance, to construct more
complicated filters.
=head2 ir_sinc
=for usage
$sinc = ir_sinc($f_cut, $N);
=for ref
Return an C<$N> point sinc function representing a lowpass filter
with cutoff frequency C<$f_cut>.
C<$f_cut> must be between 0 and 1, with 1 being Nyquist freq.
The output pdl is the function C where
$x is pdl of C<$N> uniformly spaced values ranging from
C< - PI * ($N-1)/2> through C. For what it's
worth, a bit of efficiency is gained by computing the index
at which C<$x> is zero, rather than searching for it.
=cut
=head2 spectral_inverse
=for usage
$fir_inv = spectral_inverse($fir);
=for ref
Return output kernel whose spectrum is the inverse of the spectrum
of the input kernel.
The number of samples in the input kernel must be odd.
Input C<$fir> and output C<$fir_inv> are real-space fir filter kernels.
The spectrum of the output kernel is the additive inverse
with respect to 1 of the spectrum of the input kernel.
=cut
=head2 spectral_reverse
=for usage
$fir_rev = spectral_reverse($fir);
=for ref
Return output kernel whose spectrum is the reverse of the spectrum
of the input kernel.
That is, the spectrum is mirrored about the center frequency.
=cut
=head1 AUTHOR
John Lapeyre, C<< >>
=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
=head1 LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2012 John Lapeyre.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.
See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.
=cut
=head1 NAME
PDL::DSP::Simple - Simple interface to windowed sinc filters.
=head1 SYNOPSIS
use PDL::LiteF;
use PDL::DSP::Fir::Simple;
=head1 DESCRIPTION
At present, this module provides one filtering
routine. The main purpose is to provide an easy-to-use
lowpass filter that only requires the user to provide the
data and the cutoff frequency. However, the routines take
options to give the user more control over the
filtering. The module implements the filters via convolution
with a kernel representing a finite impulse response
function, either directly or with fft. The filter kernel is
constructed from windowed sinc functions. Available filters
are lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandreject. All window
functions in L are available.
See L for a moving average filter.
Some of this functionality is already available in the PDL core.
The modules L and L (time series) also have
filtering functions.
Below, the word B refers to the number of elements in the filter
kernel. The default value is equal to the number of elements in the data
to be filtered.
No functions are exported by default.
=head1 FUNCTIONS
=head2 filter
$dataf = filter($data, {OPTIONS});
or
$dataf = filter($data, $kern);
=head3 Examples
=for example
Apply lowpass filter to signal $x with a cutoff frequency of 90% of the
Nyquist frequency (i.e. 45% of the sample frequency).
$xf = filter($x, { fc => 0.9 });
Apply a highpass filter rather than the default lowpass filter
$xf = filter($x, {fc => 0.9 , type => 'highpass' });
Apply a lowpass filter of order 20 with a blackman window rather than the default hamming window.
$xf = filter($x, {fc => 0.9 , window => 'blackman' , N => 20 });
Apply a 10 point moving average. Note that this moving averaging is implemented via
convolution. This is a relatively inefficient implementation.
$xf = filter($x, {window => 'rectangular', type => 'window', N => 10 });
Return the kernel used in the convolution.
($xf, $kern) = filter($x, { fc => 0.9 });
Apply a lowpass filter of order 20 with a tukey window with parameter I = 0.5.
$xf = filter($x, {fc => 0.9 ,
window => { name => 'tukey', params => 0.5 } , N => 20 });
=head3 OPTIONS
=over
=item N
Order of filter. I.e. the number of points in the filter kernel.
Default: number of points in $data.
=item kern
A kernel to use for convolution rather than calculating a kernel
from other parameters.
=item boundary
Boundary condition passed to C. Must be one of
'extend', 'truncate', 'periodic'. See L.
=back
All other options to C are passed to the function L which creates the filter kernel.
L in turn passes options to L.
The option C is either a string giving the name of the window function, or
an anonymous hash of options to pass to L.
For example C<< { name => 'window_name', ... } >>.
If the second argument is not a hash of options then it is interpreted as a
kernel C<$kern> to be convolved with the C<$data>.
If called in a list context, the filtered data and kernel ($dataf,$kern)
are returned.
=cut
=head2 testdata
$x = testdata($Npts, $freqs, $amps)
For example:
$x = testdata(1000, [5,100], [1, .1] );
Generate a signal by summing sine functions of differing
frequencies. The signal has $Npts
elements. $freqs is an array of frequencies, and $amps an
array of amplitudes for each frequency. The frequencies should
be between 0 and 1, with 1 representing the nyquist frequency.
=cut
=head1 AUTHOR
John Lapeyre, C<< >>
=head1 LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2012 John Lapeyre.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.
See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.
=cut